Grammars Summary

 Grammars Summary

                                                                                                                                                                                      

 

Book13

1

We use so after some verbs as a substitute for a that –noun clause . the most common verbs followed by so are think ,believe ,guess, hope ,imagine , and suppose

 

Will jack come to the party ?

      I think so .( I think that jack will come )

Has bill finished his work ?

      I hope so .(I hope that bill has finished his work)

 

The negative depends on the verb:

 

I think so ……………I don’t  think so

I believe so ………….I don’t  believe so

I imagine so ………….I don’t  imagine so

I suppose so ……………I don’t  suppose so

 

I guess so …………I guess not

I hope so ……………..I hope not

Book13

2

We use a that – clause after the adjective certain, sure, positive. to express an opinion about someone or something

 

I’m certain that ,I can go this weekend

He’s sure that he’ll pass the test.

We‘re positive that we’ll have enough money for the car.

 

The conjunction “ that “ is many times omitted in conversation

 

Book13

3

The –er and – est forms are used with one –syllable adverbs.

Early                earlier (than)               the earliest

Far                   farther   (than )            the farthest

                         Further (than)              the furthest

Hard                harder than                   the hardest

High                higher than                   the highest

Late                 later than                      the latest

Low                 lower than                    the lowest

Near                 nearer than                  the nearest

Slow                slower than                  the slowest

Soon                sooner than                  the soonest

Straight            straighter than              the straightest

Early is an exception to the rule

 

 

 

 

Book13

4

Could is frequently  used to request permission it is like may and can

 

Could I borrow your book .please ?

May I ask you a question /

Can I leave early today?

Can or cant are usually used as responses to a request for permission with could

Could I borrow your book ,please ?

Yes ,of course you can

Could I leave early today?

I’m sorry .your can’t

 

Book13

5

May ,might, and could are used to express possibility

 

He may be in his office

He might be eating lunch

He could be at home

 

Can ,and is/am/are able to  are used to express ability in the present or future , could and was /were able to are used for the past .

She can speak three languages

They are able to speak French and Spanish

My grand father was able to speak Russian

May ,can,and could are used to request a permission

May I come in ?

Can I swim here ?

Could I use your phone ?

 

Book13

6

Could may can

Do you mind if …..?

Is it okay to ………….?

Would it be okay to ……….?

Is it okay if …………….?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book13

7

Adjective usually modify or describe nouns

 

A nice day

A cold winter

 

Nouns can also modify nouns ,they are called noun adjuncts they are always singular .

A store that sell shoes is a shoe store

My brother drives trucks , he a truck driver .

When a noun modifies another noun . the first noun is stressed

   A can opener

   A wedding ring

   Some paint brushes

 

 

Book13

8

The term phrasal verb refers to a verb and an adverb that together. This verb and adverb have a special meaning

He put on his hat

 She wrote down the telephone number

They threw away the old newspaper

Many times a phrasal verb will have an object

There are two possible positions for the object . if the object is a noun . it can come before the adverb or after it

He turned on the radio

He turned the radio on

She’ll look up the word in the dictionary

She’ll look the word up in the dictionary

If the object of phrasal verb is a pronoun (me,you,him,her,etc),the pronoun must be between the verb and the adverb

I like the hat . try it on

I’ll give you the money .but you must pay it back

She’s sleeping .don’t wake her up

Phrasal verbs are very common in conversation .

Book13

9

When a modal is used in direct speech ,it is frequently changed in reported speech

 

Direct speech (present tense )                    reported speech (past tense )

May                                                              might

Might                                                            might

Can                                                                could

Am/is/are able you                                       was/were able to

 

Book13

10

The suffix –er and –or can be added to some verbs to make nouns to express the meaning of “ one who “ or “ that which

He teaches students to read

He’s a teacher

She collects stamps

 She’s a stamp collector

  Collector , visitor ,educator ,and instructor are spelled with – or 

 

Book13

11

The question word how has many uses ,it is  often used with adjectives to ask questions

How long asks about length

How high asks about height

How tall asks about length

How far asks about length

How wide asks about width

How deep asks about depth

How old asks about age

How heavy asks about  weight

How hot/cold asks about temperature

A question with what can be used for a question with how

How long is it ?

What’s its length /

* tall is used to refer to someone or something from the ground  up ;high is used when talking about something at a point above the ground

 

Book13

12

To change INCHES to CEN-S multiply by 2.5400

To change FEET to METRS multiply by 0.3048

To change YARDS to METRS multiply by 0.9144.

To change MILES to KILOM multiply by 1.6093

 

Book13

13

certain if-conditional sentences express something that is true .the simple present tense can be used in the if-clause and the imperative or present tense in the main clause

IF-CLAUSE                 MAIN – CLAUSE

(condition)                    (result )

If the TV doesn’t work ,push this button

If I get up at 0600, I get work on time .

If I don’t eat lunch , I become hungry by 2:00 p.m

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book13

14

Large quantities

Many is used to refer to count nouns

Much is used to refer to no count nouns ,it’s usually used in negative sentences

A lot is used to refer to both count and non count nouns

Small quantities

A few is used to refer to count nouns

A little is used to refer to non count nouns

General quantities

Some ,any ,and are used to refer to both count and non count nouns

Use some in affirmative statement and question

Use any in negative statement and question

Use non

Book14

1

Count nouns are that may be preceded by  a   or   an   in the singular

A book       a man

An apple    a fish

Book14

2

Count nouns can be made plural

Regular plurals are formed by adding :

Irregular plurals have deferent forms .

-es to words ending in these letter:ch,ce,s,z,ge,sh,x

-es and changing the y to I to words ending in CorY .

-S to other words

Boxes

Sandwiches

Dresses

Inches

Pages

wishes

 

Families

Duties

Cities

libraries

Books

Chairs

Tables

Words

boys

Fish

Deer

Children

Feet

Teeth

Men

Women

knives

Book 14

3

The –es or –s that is added to count nouns to form plural has three deferent pronunciation

/IZ/                                       /S/                                            /Z/

Boxes                                         books                                              tables

Dresses                                     suits                                                    sons

Sandwiches                             cooks                                                  words

Dishes                                       cups                                                  windows

Pages                                        boots                                                    boys

Horses                                      recruits                                                duties

Quizzes                                    ranks                                                    jobs

Chances                                   basics                                                    caves

Classes                                                                                                  eggs

Service

Book14

4

Just and soon are adverbs of time.

Just is used to indicate recent completion in the past

Soon is used to indicate expected completion in the near future

Ex: john just arrived from N.Y.

His brother will arrive from L.A soon.

 

Book14

5

We use an as ……….as  construction with adjectives and adverbs to make comparisons look at the examples

1.      jack is twenty years old

       bill is twenty years old

       jack is as old as bill ( they are the same age )

2.      fred is rich

      fred is richer than his brother john

      john is non as rich as his brother fred

3.      Linda finished her work in two hours

      betty finished in the same time

      betty worked as fast as Linda worked

       ( betty and Linda worked at the same speed )

4.      bob studies hard every night

      mary sometimes studies

       mary doesn’t study as hard as bob does

      ( bob studies harder than mary

 

Book14

6

The future progressive is formed with :

Will+be +verb –ing

It is used to express an action that will be in progress at or up to a particular time in the future

We’ll be leaving at noon on Friday

Tom wont be leaving until midnight  tonight

 

Book14

7

We can use certain adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs to make the meaning stronger

These adverbs have the general meaning stronger

These adverbs have the general meaning of very for example

Extremely cheap ( adverb+ adjective )

Really interesting ( adverb+ adjective )

Rather good ( adverb+ adjective )

Terribly noisy ( adverb+ adjective )

Quite fast ( adverb+ adverb )

So well ( adverb+ adverb )

Very quickly( adverb+ adverb )

 

Book14

8

Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place .it comes right after the place

We found a restaurant

The food was good (at the restaurant )

We found a restaurant where the food was good

( where refers to restaurant , a place )

When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time it comes right after the noun

The summer was hot

We went to san Francisco ( during that summer )

The summer when we went to san Francisco was hot

( when refer to summer ,a noun of time )

 

 

Book14

9

Certain if-conditional sentences express something that is true . the present progressive or the present perfect can be used in the if – clause ,and the future ,a model ,or the imperative can be use in the main clause

 

 

If-clause (condition)

Main clause (result )

Present progressive

If you are looking for bill

Future /model / imperative

You ‘ll find him in the library

You can find him in the library

Go to the library

Present perfect

If you haven’t been to the park

Future /model / imperative

We’re going to go this Sunday

You should go this Sunday

Go this Sunday

 

 

Book14

10

A gerund is the –ing form of a verb

Examples eating ,playing ,sleeping

A gerund is used as a noun . the most common noun function of the gerund is the object of a verb the gerund plus the words that go with it is called a gerund phrase

He enjoys teaching English

We finshed working a bout an hour ago

A gerund or gerund phrase can also be used as the subject of a sentence

Driving on wet roads can be dangerous

Learning a second language is fun

A gerund or gerund phrase can be used as the object of a preposition

You can turn off the radio by pushing this button

Are you interested in learning german ?

He apologized for being late

The following is a list of common preposition combinations with verbs and adjectives that gerund can be follow:

Verb+preposition

Apologize for ,Believe in ,Decide on ,Finish with, Look forward to ,

Plan on ,Thank someone for ,

Adjective +preposition,

Afraid of ,Bored with ,Excited about ,Fond of ,Frightened of ,Happy about ,

Interested in ,Nervous about, Proud of, Scared of, talk about ,

Think of ,Tired of ,Worried about ,

 

 

Book14

11

Must is used with the simple present tense or the present progressive to the simple express probability.

Steve is smiling .he must be happy

I smell smoke .something must be burning

Must not is used for the negative

John’s lights are off he must not be at home

Betty isn’t eating ,she must not be hungry

 

 

Book14

12

We use the modals must ,may ,might and could

To make deductions and conditions from the information that we receive

Must is used when we are very sure or very certain about something may,might and could are used when we are less sure or certain

Must …………..very sure

May

Might

Could    ……….less sure

 

Book14

13

Will and be going to are both used to express future time

Frank will finish packing tonight

He is going to finish packing tonight

Could and would are used to make requests

Would you close the window ,please ?

Could you please hand me to to sugar?

 

Book14

14

Should and ought to are both used to give advice

You don’t look good .you should see a doctor

You don’t look good ,you ought to see a doctor

The negative contraction of should is shouldn’t

Ought to is not usually used in the negative or questions

 

 

 

 

Book14

15

When a modal is used in direct speech ,it is frequently changed in reported speech

Direct speech

(present tense )

Reported speech

(past tense )

 

Will

Present –be going to

Must(necessity )

Have /has-to

Not have to

must not (prohibition )

Would

Past-be going to

Had to

Had to

Didn’t have to

Must not

 

Notice that had to is used instead of must in past tense reported speech when must means necessity

Book15

1

There are some adverbs that are called adverbs of frequency (never ,ever ,seldom,,always,usually ,often frequently ,occasionally, sometimes)

Notice where they are in the sentences. the most common position is before the verb ,but after be they can also come at the beginning or end of sentence

 

She is

Is she

She

Does she

Seldom

Usually

Never

always

 

On time

On time?

Comes here

Comes here?

 

 

 

Book15

2

More and most are used with adverbs of 2 or more syllables for the comparative and superlative forms

Adverb

comparative

superlative

Slowly

Carefully

Frequently

More slowly than

More carefully than

More frequently than

The most slowly

The most carefully

The most frequently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These are some examples of adverbs formed by adding –ly to adjectives * note the spelling changes

Correct

beautiful

Natural

Soft

Quit

Easy

Reasonable

Careful

Cautious

Slow

Nervous

Quick

Angry

 

Correctly

Beautifully

Naturally

Softly

quietly

Easily

Reasonably

Carefully

Cautiously

Slowly

Nervously

Quickly

Angrily

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book15

3

The suffix – ion may be added to some verbs to form nouns .note the spelling

Changes

Collect

Educate

Locate

Operate

Confuse

Instruct

Select

Promote

 

Collection

Education

Location

Operation

Confusion

Instruction

Selection

promotion

 

 

Book15

4

We use will and would to say what we want or want to do

Can I help you please?

Yes ,I’d like a cheese sandwich

(= I want a cheese sandwich)

We’re having a party next weekend .can you come?

Yes, I’d love to.

(=yes ,I’ want to help you with it)

 

 

 

 

 

Book15

5

Should ,ought to ,and be supposed to have with it the same meaning they are used to give advice

  • you should study more
  • you ought to do better

We’re supposed to take off our hats inside

used to is used to express an activity Situation ,or a habit that existed in the past

But which no longer exists

*I used to smoke ten years ago ,but I don’t any longer

Would is used to express an action that repeated regularly in the past

Use to – can also be used this way

  • when I was a boy .my father would play baseball with us
  • * when I was a boy .my father used to play baseball with us

Must Is used to express deduction and probability

  • John’s not in class he must be sick today

 

 

Book15

6

Can is used to say that something is possible

*we can see the lake from the living room

*you can walk to the pool .it’s very close

* flying in an airplane can be dangerous

 

Book15

7

To express an indefinite place or location we use the adverbs some where ,anywhere and nowhere

This is how are used :

Somewhere in affirmative questions/ statements

Anywhere in affirmative questions/ negative statements

Nowhere in short answers.

(nowhere means not anywhere )

Are you going somewhere ?

Are you ging anywhere ?

Yes

I’m going

Somewhere

No

I;m not going

Any where

Where are you going

 

nowhere

Book15

8

Was were going to is used to say what someone intended to do in the past ,but didn’t

*John was going to fly to Paris,But he changed his mind

* my sister was going to meet me for dinner ,but she forgot

 

 

 

 

 

Book15

9

The word else is used with adverb and pronoun compounds of some- ,any- , no-,and every -:

Somebody else /some one else = some other person

Anybody else /any body else /any one else =any other person

Every body else /every one else = every other person

Some thing else = some other thing

Any thing else =any other thing

Nothing else =no other thing

Every thing else = every other thing

Some where else =in/at /to some other place

Any where else =in/at /to any other place

Nowhere else =in/at/to every other place

 

 

Book15

10

When a modal is used in direct speech .it is sometimes change in reported speech ,notice will/would

Direct speech (present tense)

Reported speech (past tense )

 

Ought to /should

Used to /would

Must/must not

Was /were going

Would like to

Will*/would

Ought to/should

Used to/would

Must /must not

Was/were going to

Would like to

Would *

 

Book15

11

The following words are reflexive pronouns :

Myself ,ourselves,

Yourself, yourselves

Him self , them selves

Herself

 Itself

A reflexive pronoun is used as an object and refers to the sentence or clause

* sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book15

12

We use adjectives after certain verbs called linking verbs. when adjective is used after a linking verb, the adjective modifies the subject of the sentence

The most common linking verbs are :

Appear ,get ,smell ,Be, keep ,sound ,Become, seem,  taste

Your friend is very nice

The coffee tastes strong

Tom appeared calm during the storm

The food will remain cold on the ice

Bill seems nervous about his operation

 

Book15

13

The suffix –ly can be added to nouns of time make adjectives and ,the most common are :

Day +ly     daily

Hour +ly    hourly

Month +ly   monthly

Night +ly   nightly

Week +ly weekly

Year +ly   yearly

The + ly words above can be use as both adjectives and adverbs

 

Book16

1

It’s

A good plan

Expensive

Not healthy

To save

To take

To skip

Money every month

A taxi

Meals

 

 

Book16

2

You

Had better

‘d better

Pay the rent today

Get to class on time

Stop at the red light

You

Had better not

‘d better not

Forget to pay therent

Be late for class

Run the red light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book16

3

Use the infinitive of the verb (without to)

After “why don’t you “ and “ why not

why

Don’t

I

You

We

Ask for a drink?

Call him?

Watch the news?

Start jogging?

Open it now

not

Book16

4

the past perfect tense expresses an activity that was completed before another activity occurred in the past

He

I

She

 

Started the car

Hadn’t met him

Had gone inside

After they’d fastened their seat belt

Before he came to our class

By the time he thought to ask here

The past perfect tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb . it is used when you are talking about two thing that have already

 

 

Book16

5

had

Asked

Caused

Dropped

Hoped

Lived

Moved

Bought

Eaten

Heard

Seen

Thought

I had = I’d

You had =you’d

We had =we’d

They had =they’d

He had =he;d

She had =she ‘d

Had +not =hadn’t

 

 

Book16

6

Passive voice : be- passive

 

Subject

Verb

Object

Agent

The secretary

Types

The letter

 

The letters

Are typed

 

(by the secretary

 To form the be – passive :

Add be+ - ed ( past participle ) to the verb move the object of the sentence to the subject position

Add by to the original subject and move it to the agent position . the agent may be omitted

 

 

Book16

7

I

Must

Have to

Have got to

Cash a check

 

 

Book16

8

The soldiers

The tourists

Ted and bob

Had been

Hadn’t been

Marching

Napping

Watching

For hours before dinner

During the rain storm

Tv while I was shopping

 

 

Book16

9

 

 

I

You

He

She

We

they

 

Prefer(s)

Meat to chicken

Beating to sking

Tea rather than coffee

To ride rather than walk

 

 

 

Book16

10

He was

It’s

Iam

Easy

Impossible

Difficult

(for me)

To understand

To eat ice cream on cold days

To be with when I’m mad !

Book16

11

It is safe to drink water from this lake ?

Be

Is

Was

Were

Easy

Safe

Difficult

Impossible

 

To walk

To speak

To carry

To finish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book16

12

I

 

 

Sue

He

 

 

 

You

Bill and I

They

Am

Was

 

Is

Was

 

 

 

Are

were

 

 

Unable to

Fix it

Sue

 

Is n’t able to

Is unable to

Can’t

Install the battery

Frank

Wasn’t able to

Was able to

Couldn’t

Be here last night

 

 

Book16

13

 

I’m

Jim couldn’t

Do you swim

Dirty enough

Fast enough

Regularly enough

To take a shower

To catch bill

To keep it?

 

 

 

Book16

14

Count noun things that can be counted

Non count noun are that can’t be counted

Lessons

Showers

Dollars

Spoons

Cups

Glasses

Minutes

People

Information

Rain

Money sugar

Coffee

Water

Time news

Too many is used to express “ more than enough “ use too many with count nouns

Too much also means” more than enough “Use” too much” with non count nouns

 

 

 

 

 

Book16

15

Apply

Cancel

Continue

Examine

Imagine

Invite prepare

recommend

+ ation

Application

Cancellation

Continuation

Examination

Imagination

Invitation

Preparation

Recommendation

Book17

1

The linking verbs in the list are used to express a state or condition they also reflect

A point of view

john

Is

(to me *) like

His father

It

Tastes

Sounds

Looks

Smells

Feels

Sems

Appears

The cake we had in Paris

A good idea

A nice place

A nice place to stay

Smoke in this room

Another cold evening

The right yhing to do

 

This can also be placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence

 

Book17

2

 To be often follows the verbs appear and seem in the pattern

He

Seems

Appears ( to me )

To be

Angry

A nice person

In a  hurry

Interested in books

 

This is sometimes placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence

Book17

3

Indirect speech : yes / no questions

Direct speech

John :

Can we

Go finishing?

Indirect speech

John asked (Sam )

Whether ,if

They could

Go fishing

 

 

Direct speech

Jack :

Do you want

To go to Europe?

Indirect speech

Jack asked (me)

Whether

If

I wanted

To go to Europe

 

Note that the present tense verbs change to past tense , the order of the verb and the subject changes ,and the pronouns and possive adjectives change from one person to another

Book17

4

Decide

Destroy

Divide

Intend

Produce

Prescribe

Reduce

Solve

Decision

Destruction

Division

Intention

Production

Prescription

Reduction

Solution

 

 

Book17

5

 

Is it supposed to rain?

I don’t know

I wonder

I can’t remember

I ‘ve forgotten

I’m not sure

I have no idea

If

Whether

It’s supposed to rain (or not )

 

When a yes /no question is changed to a noun clause ,whether or if is used to introduce the clause

 

Book17

6

 

Is major Simms in ?

Do you know

Can you tell me

Could you tell me

Could you please tell me

Do you have any idea

Do you by any chance know

If

Whether

It’s supposed to rain (or not )

Major Simms is in (or not )?

 

 

Book17

7

 

When

What

Does the library open ?

Time is it ?

Do you know

Can you tell me

Could you tell me

Could you please tell me

Do you have any idea

Do you by any chance know

When

What

The library opens ?

Time it is?

 

When a question –word question is changed a noun clause

The same question word is used to introduce the clause

 

Book17

8

 

Where

When

Who

Is the library?

Will he leave ?

can help me ?

 

I wonder

I dpn’t know

I can’t remember

I ‘ve forgotten

I;m not sure

I have no idea

Where

When

Who

 

the library Is

he Will leave

can help me

 

 

 

Book17

9

 

I

Prefer

Like

My coffee

Hot

Black

Strong

 

Note that in this type of sentence , the noun or pronoun comes before the adjective

 

Book17

10

Active voice

Subject

Verb

Object

They

Will

Must

Ought to

Should

Can

May

Might

Could

Have to

Don’t have to

Put on

Wear

Remove

Take off

 

Shoes

Hats

Gloves

 

Passive voice

 

Subject

Verb

Object

Shoes

Hats

gloves

Will

Must

Ought to

Should

Can

May

Might

Could

Have to

Don’t have to

Put on

Worn

Removed

Taken off

 

(by them )

Book17

11

I didn’t

Decide

Find out

Forget

Know

Learn

Remember

 

 

When

Which

How

who

where

what

 

To leave

To buy

To cook

To ask

To go

To do

Show

Tell

Teach

ask

(her)

(him )

(them )

(you)

 

 

 

Book17

12

  • although my apartment is quite small .I like it a lot
  • I like my apartment a lot although it is quite small
  • Though that restaurant is very expensive ,it’s always full
  • That restaurant is always full it is very expensive
  • Even though parade full ,many people stayed
  • Many people stayed even though the parade was long

 

 

Book17

13

The fire

I

You

 

Soft

Weak

Black

Hard

Dark

-en (s)

- ened

The pots

The dishes

We

The workers

bill

Short

Wide

Deep

 

The pool

The lake

Tight

Sharp

Loose

The screw

The death

Sad

The children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book17

14

 

Tag question

He

Doesn’t study every day

Hasn’t written his family

Isn’t leaving tomorrow

Does

Has

Is

he

You

Should do your homework

Have a large family

Are a student here

Shouldn’t

Don’t

Aren’t

You

  • Are you serious ?
  • Are you sure ?
  • Where did you hear ?
  • When you learn ?
  • Is this information correct ?
  • He isn’t ,is he ?
  • Does it really?
  • How do you know that …..?
  • Will it really ……..?
  • Is it true …..?
  • Is it really so ?
  • He is , isn’t he ?

 

Book17

15

He went downtown , I went downtown

He went downtown , and I did too

                                         (so did I )

She doesn’t like fish , they don’t like fish

She doesn’t like ,and neither do they

                                   (They don’t either)

 

Book18

1

Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to join nouns ,adjectives ,adverbs ,phrases ,and clauses.

Both …..And     and     not only …..but also  indicate addition

Either .or indicates choice /alternative

Neither ………nor indicates  negative choice / addition

Each conjunction should be placed immediately in front

Of the word ,phrase ,or clause it connects.

Both Janet and her sister arrived last night .

You can either go with me or stay here.

He’s not only intelligent but also wealthy

Roy drives neither carelessly nor fast

When the compound subjects of sentence are joined  by either ……..or / neither …nor ,the general rule is that the number of the verb is determined by the number of the noun phrase closest to it .

Either mr Reynolds or his sons always attend the company’s annual meeting .

Neither passengers nor the bus driver was injured in the accident .

 

Book18

2

Lt hill flew the plane

The plane was flown by lt hill

 

 

Book18

3

Ann : what is the matter ,tom ?

            Why are you so late ?

Ann asked (tom) what the matter was

                             Why he was so late .

Book18

4

it +be –verb + adj + that noun clause .

it

Is possible

Was clear

(that)

Someone made a mistake

The party was over

 

 

 

Book18

5

Conditional clause (cause)

Main clause (effect )

If he exercised regularly

If you called steve now

If you left earlier

If I were you

He would probably feel better

You might be able to reach him

We would get home before dark

I’d follow the doctor’s advise

 

Main clause( effect )

 

Main clause (cause )

Sam wouldn’t get so cnfused

You could get your money back

I might understand her better

This would be a better movie

If he followed instructions

If you had your sales slip

If she spoke more slowly

If it weren’t so long

Book18

6

Wish

That noun clause

The students wish

My instructor wishes

Captain Wilson wishes

The trainees often wish

(that)

They graduated sooner

She could retire next year

He were a four –star general

They weren’t in the service

 

 

Book18

7

Used to

Infinitive without to

Harry

Janet

they

Used to

Work

Teach

Ride

In an office downtown

Classes at the university

To work together every day

Book18

8

Be used to / be accustomed to

Noun/gerund

They are used to

Jean isn’t used to

We were accustomed to

I wasn;t accustomed to

Beef and potatoes for dinner

Eating supper at six o’clock

Dry weather in Arizona

Carrying an umbrella everywhere

 

 

 

Book18

8

  • you shouldn’t / should
  • you ought to /have to
  • you’d better /better not
  • it’s best /best not to
  • it’s dangerous to
  • watch out /watch out for
  • look out /look out for
  • be careful /be careful to
  • be sure to / be sure not to
  • don’t

 

 

Book18

9

Sub + verb + direct object + to-inf

 

I

We

they

Advice

Expect

Require

You

Every one

Their customers

To make a reservation

To leave the meeting

To pay in advance

 

 

These are some of the verbs which can appear in this pattern

Ask, advice ,allow ,cause ,convince ,expect , help , instruct ,invite ,need ,order , permit ,require ,select ,teach ,tell, want ,warn ,would like

Book18

10

Negative questions are formed by adding the word not after the verb or modal :

Were you not at the meeting

Did the secretary not notify you ?

Why was every one not told it ?

However ,a contraction of and the verb or modal is almost always used in informal speech and writing

Weren’t you at the meeting ?

Didn’t the secretary notify you ?

Why wasn’t everyone told about it ?

The use of a negative yes-no question indicates that the speaker thinks he already knows the answer. He hopes for or expects an affirmative response from the listener ,even though he doesn’t always receive one

 

Wasn’t the game postponed ?

Yes ,it was off until next weekend .

Haven’t we met some where before ?

No ,I don’t believe so

A negative question that begins with a question –word is simply a request for information

Why wasn’t the game held today ?

The coach had to be out of town

 

 

Who hasn’t met the new commander yet ?

No one in our office has

 

 

Book18

11

Statement / tag

You’re a pilot .aren’t you ?

They study a lot ,don’t they ?

We can leave now ,can’t we

He isn’t a pilot , is he ?

They don’t study a lot ,do they ?

We can’t leave now , can we ?

 

Agreement

I think so ,too

Yes,you’re right .

I couldn’t agree more (  means I agree )

That’s just what I was thinking

I was going to say the same thing

You took the words right out of my mouth

Disagreement

If you ask me ……

But on the other hand .

Yes ,that’s true .but …that’s not exactly what I mean

I’m not sure that I agree with that

Well, you have a good point ,but

Do you think it’s right to say that ?

It’s true that . ,but it’s also true that …….

 

Book18

12

Can’t / couldn’t as logical impossibility

 

Can’t and couldn’t are often used to mean “ it’s not possible that “or “ it’s impossible that ..)

It’s not possible for the car to be out of gas

It’s impossible for the car to be out of gas

 The car can’t /couldn’t be out of gas

 

Book18

13

Have ,make and get

 

Have ,make ,and get  are often used to indicate that one person has the power to force another to do something

 

The major can’t attend the meeting ,he’ll have the captain go instead

When the jacksons work in their house or yard ,they make their children help

I’ve been calling the store for an hour ,but I can’t get any one there to answer the phone

Get is followed by a noun or pronoun and a to-infinitive ,have and make are followed by a noun or pronoun and infinitive without to

 

 

He

Had

Made

The mechanic

Fix

The car

Got

To fix

 

Book18

14

Modals in the perfect tense have the following meanings :

May have ,might have ,and could have express possibility about a past action or condition

The secretary may have gone to lunch

They might have taken a different flight

You could have cashed a check at the px

 

Must have indicates that deduction is being made about a past action or condition

They’re not hungry .they must have already eaten

Should have ,and ought to have indicate that a past obligation wasn’t fulfilled .they also express the idea that a sensible was not taken

 

We should have asked ted to eat dinner with us

I ought to have studied more for the test

Should not have is used to indicate that a past action or condition was not wise

He shouldn’t have changed lanes without signaling

 

Book18

15

 

 

Main clause

Adjective clause

She’s a person

Is that the book

Here’s the money

(whom)

(Which)

(That)

I’d like to meet

The teacher gave you ?

I borrowed for you

Many Americans use “ who “ instead of “whom “

 

 

 

 

Book18

16

Verb

Suffix

noun

Advertise

Agree

Appoint

 

+ - ment

Advertisement

Agreement

Appointment

Book19

1

Many phrasal verbs and phrasal propositional verbs are inseparable ,that they cannot be separated by an object ,some ,however can  be either separable or inseparable they often have one meaning when they are separable and a different one when they are separable and a different one when they are inseparable .these verbs are included in the list and marked with an asterisk

Be back =to return

Be up for =to be eligible for

Blow out =to burst or explode

Check in =to register to report your arrival

Check in = to leave ,to report your departure

Clear up =to become clear speaking of the weather

Come back =to return

Come in = to arrive as expected

Come over =to make a short informal visit

Cut down on =to reduce in quantity or amount

Drop by =to visit unexpectedly or informally

Drop in = to pay a visit informally

Drop off = to fall asleep

Drop over =to visit unexpectedly or informally

End up = to finish in a certain place /way

Fall in =to line up in formation

Get along with =to be in agreement

Get in = to arrive

Get off =to leave a vehicle ,to leave work

Get on =to enter a vehicle

Get rid of =to free oneself from ,to throw a way ,to give away something

Get up =to rise from a sitting or lying position

 

Go back= to return

Go out = to leave the house ,especialtty for fun to stop burning /shining

Go over =to review ,to make a short ,informal visit

Hold on =to wait , to wait on the phone

Look forward to =to anticipate pleasurably

Look out (for )= to take care /be careful of

Put up with =to tolerate without complaining

Run into =to incounter ,collide with

Run out of = to use the entire  supply

Sign in /out =to write one’s name on roll for record keeping purposes

Sit down =to take a seat /occupy a chair

Stand up =to rise to upright position on your feet

Take part in = to participate in

Take care of =to assume responsibility

Take off =to depart

Watch out for = to take care /be carefull of

Work on =to repair

work out = to exercise 

 

 

 

 

Book19

2

To show that people own or possess something ,we added apostrophe and –s (‘s) to a singular noun or irregular plural noun .the pronunciation is the same as with plural nouns

When the final sound is voiced (words that end with the letters m,n,b,v,l,r,g, or a vowel we pronounce  ‘s as /z/

Sally rents apartment

This is sally’s apartment

The restroom for men is next to the elevator

The men’s restroom is next to the elevator

The women own that car

That’s the women’s car

When the final sound is voiceless (words that end with the letter s,t,p,f,k ) we pronounce ‘s as /s /

 

The report the lieutenant made was long

The lieutenant’s report was long

When the final sound ends in the letters s ,sh ,ch,ge ,x,or z we pronounce ‘s as /ez/

When we have a plural noun ,we add only the apostrophe (‘) after the final  -s the pronounciation doesn’t change

 

The students have books

Those are the students’ books

The lunchroom for the employees is closed

The employees’ lunch room is closed

 

 

Book19

3

 

Subject

Pronouns

i

You

She

He

It

We

They

Object pronouns

Me

You

Her

Him

It

Us

them

Possive adjectives and pronouns

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

My

Yours truly, his

Her

Its

Our

Their

Mine

Yours truly, his

Hers

Its

Ours

Theirs

 

Possessive adjectives are used before nouns

This is my pen

That’s your book

These her papers

Possessive pronouns are used alone without nouns

This pen is mine

That book is yours

These papers are yours

These are hers

The pronoun its is not commonly used

 

Book19

4

Couldn’t have

We use  couldn’t have +past participle to express logical impossibility about a past action

 

Mark couldn’t have quit the job

I saw him at work just this morning

 

Lt rice couldn’t have been promoted yet

He only recently became a lieutenant

 

Mary couldn’t have called me last night

My phone was out of order

 

George couldn’t have been in school the 25 th

It was a Sunday

 

Book19

5

We use could have =past participle to express past unfulfilled ability

 

Curtis could have gone to college

He decided to get a job instead

Molly could have been a supervisor

But she turned down the offer

 

Book19

6

Few /afew and  little /alittle can be used as adjectives and pronouns when we them as adjectives and pronouns .when we use them as adjectives ,we use a few /few with count nouns and a little /little with noncount nouns

Michelle has a few friends

Michelle has few friends

(friends can be counted )

Jan likes a little sugar in her coffee

Jan likes little sugar in her coffee

(sugar cannot be counted)

A few and a little express ,in a positive way ,the presence of something even though in a small  quantity

 

A few people attended the concert (several people were there )

John knows alittle about comuters

(he knows some things )

Few and little express ,in a negative way ,the absence of nearly all quantity

Few people attended the meeting (not many people went )

Larry knows little about physics

(he knows almost nothing about it )

 

 

Book19

7

Conditional sentences :past unreal condition or situation

Conditional sentences have two parts : the if-clause and the main clause .one type of

Conditional sentences is used to show a past unreal condition or situation . it tells what could ,would or might have happened in the past if a certain condition or situation had been true .the ief –clause has the past perfect tense ,and the main clause uses could have /might have /would have = a past participle .note

That if – clause may come before or after the main clause

 

 

If clause

Main clause

If we had left earlier

We

Could

Might

Would

Have been on time

 

 

Main clause

If clause

Ed

Could

Might

Would

Have passed

If he had studied harder

 

If clause

Main clause

If you had had more money

What

Could

Might

Would

You have done ?

 

Could

Might

Would

You have gone

If you had finished your work ?

 

 

 

 

 

Book19

8

Suffixes –able and -ible  are added to certain nouns and verbs to make adjectives .these adjectives have the meaning of “capable of “or showing /having

Sam agrees with everything we say

He ‘s very agreeable

 

Smoking isn’t permitted here

It’s not permissible here

 

Here is a partial list of same nouns and verbs to which –able and –ible can be added:

Accept /acceptable

Adjust/adjustable

Advise /advisable

Afford/affordable

Agree/agreeable

Believe /believable

Break/breakable

Change/changeable

Collect/collectible /collectable/

Comfort /comfortable

Compare /comparable

Control/controllable

Depend/dependable

Disagree/disagreeable

Enjoy/enjoyable

Honor/honorable

Inflate /inflatable

Knowledge /knowledgeable

Like /likable

 

Love/lovable

Manage /manageable

Measure/measurable

Mistake /mistakable

Move /moveable/movable

Notice/noticeable

Obtain/obtainable

Permit /permissible

Prefer /preferable

Prevent  / preventable

Profit /profitable

Question/questionable

Reason /reasonable

Refund /refundable

Rely/reliable

Respect /respectable

Sense /sensible

Tax/taxable

Wash/washable

 

 

 

Book19

9

Wish :past unreal situation

We use wish +that noun clause (containing a past perfect verb ) to express regret about a past situation .the word “that “ is optional

 

I wish (that ) I had become a doctor instead of teacher

Amy wishes (that) she hadn’t brought that dress last week because it’s on sale now

 

Do you wish (that ) you had gone to college instead of getting married ?

 

 

Book19

10

Too and very

Very is used to express” to a great degree “it means a lot or much

This box is very heavy ,but ray can pick it up

My coffee’s very hot ….just the way I like it

Too is used to express excessiveness .it means more than enough ,the use of too implies a negative result

This box is too heavy ,ray can’t pick it up

My coffee’s too hot to drink ,I’ll wait until it cools off .

Both too and very are placed before adjectives or adverbs

 

 

 

Book19

11

a passive to- infinitive (to +be +past participle )can be used as a direct object of certain verbs such as expect ,hope ,need,prefer and want .

 

Mike expect to be obserced on his job today

Lt wyn hopes to be considered for that assignment

The general would like to be served immediately

The colonel needs to be answered homestly

Mr smith prefers not to be disturbed before 9:00

The woman want to be given respect

 

Book19

12

Indirect speech : reported present progressive .

 A present progressive tense in direct speech should be changed to the progressive in indirect speech

Ann: I’m going to the coast this weekend

Ann said that she was going to the coast this weekend

Ed : al ,wre you taking the bus to work tomorrow ?

Ed asked me if /whether iwas taking the bus to work tomorrow

Lee: sid ,when are you planning to go hunting ?

Lee asked sid ,when he was planning to go hunting .

 

Book20

1

Adjective quantifier

Some adjective quantifiers are used only with nouns which name things that can be counted .others are used only with nouns naming things which cannot be counted ,many however ,can be used with both types of nouns

 

Count nouns

Non count nouns

Both count and non count nouns

Many

Several

A few

Few

Much

A little

Little

Some

 any

a great deal of more

a lot of

most

lots of

enough

plenty of

all

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book 20

2

To inquire about the amount or quantity of something ,we use a question beginning with how much ,or how many

How much is used with noncount nouns and how many  with count nouns

 How much gas does this tank hold ?

How many gallons of gas did you buy ?

To express quantity or amount ,we use the pattern below :

Unit noun +of +count /non count noun

The recipe calls for a pint of cream

There were only two cans of soup left

 

Book 20

3

How much ..? how many ………?

Quantity /amount

A cup of  , an ounce of  ,  a pound of ,A glass of ,  a pint of ,       a kilo of

A bowl of ,   a quart of ,    a gallon of ,a battle of , a tea spoon of , a jar of ,a can of ,

A bag of ,a table spoon of , a loaf of , a pack of

A box of , a bar of , a bunch of .

 

A GROCERY LIST

 

Items

Quantity /amount

Cheese          cigarettes

Chicken                soap

Beans                   milk

Carrots                 soda

Bread             potatoes

Peanut              cooking

Butter                      oil

Pack             pound (lb)

Bar                          can

Gallon                    box

Quart                      jar

Bunch             bottle

Bag                kilo

Loaf              bottle

 

 

Book 20

4

Of with pronoun quantifiers

To express quantity or amount ,we often use a pronoun that indicates “ how much “

Or how many “ followed by of

All of the students went on the tour

I was able to answer most of the questions

Pronoun quantifiers +of

Much of

All of

Either of

Few of

On of

Many of

Most pf

Neither of

A few of

Two of

Some of

Half of

Both of

 Little of

Three of

Any of

None of

None of

More of

 A little of

 

 

 

 

 

Book 20

5

Present progressive passive

The present progressive tense is used to refer to an activity or event which is currently in progress.

The mechanic is repairing my car

They are offering courses in Spanish

 

The passive form is used when the agent either is not known or is not considered as important the action or event

 

My car is being repaired (by the mechanic )

Courses in Spanish are being offered

Passive form of the present the progressive tenses

 

Am

Are

Is

Being

Past participle

 

 

 

Book 20

6

Past progressive passive

The past progressive tense refers to actions or events which are no longer in progress

Someone was painting their house yesterday

The doctor was treating the patients

The use of the passive form emphasizes the receiver of the past action rather than its agent .it can also indicate that the agent not known

Their house was being painted yesterday

The patients were bring treated (by the doctor )

Passive form of the past progressive

 

Was

Were

Being

Past participle

Book 20

7

Else

Notice these sentences that contain word pairs with “else “ they are question –words ,pronouns , and adverbs ,they mean a different or another person ,thing ,place ,reason ,or manner

Question –word

Who

Whom

What

Else

Will be the party ?

Should we ask to the party ?

Can I do

Where

When

How

Why

Else

Can I look for my keus ?

Do you have time ?

Can I get there ?

Would he do it ?

 

 

 

Pronouns

He doesn’t remember

Do you know

Can you tell me

Who else was there

Whom else she spoke to ?

What else he said

 

Adverbs

She doesn’t know

 

 

 

Can you tell me

Where else she should look

When else to have the party

 

 

How else I can do it ?

Why else he would say that ?

 

 

Book 20

8

Causative have and get

Joe

Linda

I have to

Did you

How often do you

Why doesn’t she

When was he

Last time you

Had

Got

Get

 get

Have

Have

 

Had

His prescription

Her letter

My transmission

Your laundry

Your hair

Her car

 

The oil in your car

Filled

Approved

Checked

Done

cut

Painted

 

changed

 

Book 20

9

Indirect speech : reported simple past tense

When a statement or question in the past tense is reported

To changes occur :

 

1- the tense of the verb changes from simple past to past perfect

 

Jane said ,”Jim joined the army “

Jane said jim had joined the army

“Did anne attend the meeting ?”al ask

Al asked if anne had attended the meeting .

2-First and second person pronouns changed to the third person ( unless someone is reporting his own words )

 

Jim said “ I joined the army “

Jim said that he had loined the army

Al asked /” did you attend the meeting ,ann?

Ann said “yes ,I went to the meeting ,al “

Ann: I told al that I had gone to the meeting

 

 

 

 

Book 20

10

-ive /-tive /ative  suffix

Sometimes we can add the suffixes –ive ,-tive ,or ative to verb or noun to make an adjective ,adjective formed in this way indicate a certain tendency ,character ,or quality

Linda talks all the time ,she’s very talkative .

This watch has a defect ,it’s a defective watch

Our farm produces large crops ,the land is very productive

A change in the spelling of the verb or noun is required in some cases .when either – tive is added to a word that ends with the letter e ,that letter is omitted

 

Communicate /communicative

Create /creative

Defense /defensive

Produce /productive

In other cases ,letters in the stem are changed

 

Destroy /destructive

Persuade persuasive

Produce /productive

 

Book 20

11

Comparisons of quantifiers : little ,few ,much ,many

 

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Little

Few

Much

Many

Less(than )

Fewer (than )

More (than )

More (than )

The least

The fewest

The most

The most

Book 20

12

Mary takes vitamins so (that ) she won’t get sick

He hurried  so ( that ) he would n’t be late

She’s studying more so (that )she can graduate on time

Phil moved to rome so ( that ) he could learn Italian

 

Book 20

13

As much as /as many as

To express the idia of equality or the lack of it ,we can use as much as or as many as in the following pattern

 

As much /as many (+noun +as +noun /pronoun (verb )

Rita knows as many people as sarah does

Ed doesn’t earn as much money as bob

As many as is used with count nouns

We took as many pictures as we could

As much as is used with noncount (mass) nouns

I don’t get as much mail as you do

Book 20

14

Adverb comparisons

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Much

More (than)

The most

Little

Less (than )

The least

Book 21

1

We use the comparative form of adjectives and adverbs when we compare or imply comparison of two persons ,things ,etc .we use the superlative form when we compare or imply comparison of three or more persons ,things ,etc .

For most adjectives and adverbs of one syllable or those of two syllables that end in er, le .ow .ure .or y .add er to the adjective or adverb to form to the comparative to form the superlative add the -est

Comparative : -er

Superlative : the – est

Adjective

Old

Older

The oldest

Young

Younger

The Youngest

Pretty

Prettier

The prettiest

 

 

 

 

Adverbs

Late

Later

The latest

Fast

Faster

The fastest

Early

Earlier

The earliest

 

We use the word than after the adjective or adverb when those that are being compared are mentioned .in this structure , subject pronouns ,he ,she .we ,you ,they , follow the word

 

We will arrive earlier than they (will)

John runs faster than he does

With most adjective and adverbs of two or more syllables ,except those mentioned above put more or less before the adjective or adverb to form the comparative to form the superlative ,put the most ,or the least

Comparative :more /less

Adjectives

Careful

Beautiful

More careful

More beautiful

Less careful

Less beautiful

 

 

Adverbs

Often

Beautifully

Softly *

More often

More beautifully

More softly

Less often

Less beautifully

Less softly

 

 

 

 

Superlative : the most /the least

adjectives

Careful

Beautiful

The most Careful

The most Beautiful

The least Careful

The least Beautiful

 

 

Adverbs

Often

Beautifully

Softly *

The most  often

The most  beautifully

The most  softly

The least often

The least beautifully

The least softly

 

Note : there are exceptions

Irregular forms of adjectives and adverbs

Bad

Badly

Far

Good

well

Worse

Worse

Farther /further

Better

Better

The worst

The worst

The farthest /furthest

The best

The best

 

Paul ran farther than harry

Money is the further thing from my mind

 

Book 21

2

Too +adverb+ to +infinitive

Besides meaning more than enough or more than is necessary for a particular purpose the word too also indicates a problem or difficulty .look at too followed by an adverb and for +object  and /or the to –infinitive

This city grows too rapidly

For me

 

(for me )

To keep up with it

Book 21

3

Reported past progressive speech

The past progressive is used to describe an action in the past which happening when another action occurred

Statement with progressive

1st action (main clause )

2nd action

Time )

Ben was eating dinner

When tom called

 

In reporting what was said in a past progressive statement or a question ,change the past progressive to the past perfect progressive the verb in the time remains the same

What did al

Say ?

 

Tell

You ?

Reported speech with past perfect progressive

 

Al said

 

 

(that )

 

Ben had been eating

 

When tom called

Al told

 

Me

Was Ben eating when tom called

What did al say? (Ask you?)

Al asked )me ) if (whether )Ben had been eating when tom called

 

Book 21

5

Showing effect or result

Punctuation

mr. green lost his job ;

as a result

he can’t buy a new car

thus

therefore

consequently

 

 

 

mr. green lost his job .

as a result

he can’t buy a new car

thus

therefore

consequently

 

 

Book 21

6

How tall is he ?

How well does he play the guitar ?

How sick ?

How difficult ?

How definite ?

How often ?

How near ?

How many ?

How fast ?

How cold ?

How resent ?

 

 

Book 21

7

 In the passive the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb .the passive is formed with the verb BE +the past participle

The agent may or may not appear in passive voice sentences

 

Capt lee helps lt reed

Lt ree is helped by capt lee

 

 

They wash the cars the cars

The cars are washed

 

Capt lee helped lt reed

Lt reed was helped by capt lee

They washed the car

The cars were washed

 

 

Capt lee has helped lt reed

Lt reed has been helped by capt lee

 

They have washed the cars

The cars have been washed

 

The present perfect passive is used to indicate an indefinite past action

 

 

Book 21

8

Changing to nouns

 

-y

 

Honest /honestly

-ty

 

Certain /certainty

Entire /entirety

Special /specialty

Uncertainty

Loyalty

Safety

-ity

Electricity .formality. Reality, personality, Regularity, Popularity, Nationality

Publicity, Fatality, Stupidity, Elasticity, Rigidity, Humidity, Technicality

Seniority

Ity (silent vowel dropped )

Security ,creativity –clear .clarity –activity .severity (generous )generosity

Ility (l+silent vowel) dropped)

Responsibility –eligibility –visibility –ability

Sensibility –flexibility –prop ability –ability -sensibility -capability -possibility

 

Book 21

9

A restrictive adjective clause modifies a noun by describing or giving additional information about that noun .it always directly follows so closely .this clause frequently separates the noun from the verb

 

 

Adjective clauses ca n be introduced by the relative pronouns that /which .who /who  and relate to the subject of the clause .in this type of structure e the clause is linked to part or all of the main clause

 

The book is on the table it is interesting

The book that is on the table is interesting

 

The movie was on TV yesterday it made me cry

 

The movie which was on TV yesterday made me cry

 

The man is my neighbor .he is very tall

The man who is my neighbor is very tall

 

Adjective clauses may be introduced by the relative pronouns who (m) /which /that and relate to the object of the clause .the clause relative pronouns may be omitted

 

 

The woman was beautiful .i met her in the library

The woman (who )m) I met in the library was beautiful

 

The course is very (which ) I’m taking this semester is very difficult

 

The wallet belongs to larry /mark found it in the lab

The wallet (that ) mark found in the lab belongs to larry

 

 

Some adjective clauses may be introduced by the relative adverbs where /when and relate to the place or time

 

I prefer th French restaurant .we ate there last week

I prefer the French restaurant where we ate last week

 

Do you remember the night when we ran out of gas

 

Another restrictive adjective clause is introduced by the relative adjective whose ./it is used to show possession and replaces the possessive directly after the noun to which it relates almost always refers to people

 

 

Last night ,we met a man .his wife was born in Australia

The people are being transferred we’re buying their house

The people whose house we’re buying are being transferred

 

Book21

10

Non referential there +gerund

 

There +be means something exists .it can sometimes be followed by a gerund phrase

 

There was yelling and screaming at the football game

There will be celebrating the graduation

There is no smoking in this building

 

 

 

Book 21

11

Anticipatory it + gerund

 

A gerund is frequently used as the subject of a sentence

 

Traveling to Europe this summer will be exciting

Not buying a new car was a big mistake

 

 

Sometimes the gerund is used in a sentence with an anticipatory it construction .the it and the gerund phrase mean the same thing

 

 

It’ll be exciting traveling to Europe this summer

It was a big mistake not buying a new car

 

 

The pattern used in these sentences is :

It +be +noun /adjective +gerund phrase

 

 

 

Book 21

12

The past perfect passive is used to indicate an action or event which occurred before another action or event in the past * note that passive voice changes occur only in the main clause the statement

 

noun clause

time expression

voice

subject

verb

object

active

john

had finished

the report

before al left

Passive

the report

had been finished

 

 

              3:00

            4:00

      6:00

The report was finished                        al left the office       now

 

Book 22

13

Adjective clause reduced to to-inf  phrase

 

Restrictive adjective clauses can be reduced to  to- inf phrases .for +noun or pronoun sometimes comes before the to-inf phrase

 

 

Roger has a lot (that )he must learn

Roger has a lot tom learn

 

Mr kent is the man (whom ) you should talk to about your taxes

Mr kent is the man to talk to about your taxes

I brought some snacks

(that )we can eat later

I brought some snacks for us to eat later

 

Relative clauses introduced by when and where can also be reduced to to –inf phrases

 

 

Do you know a place (where ) I can buy batteries ?

Do you know a place to buy batteries ?

 

Saturday’s the only day (when )I can do the laundry

Saturday’s the only day to do the laundry

 

I know of a good place (where )you can meet me

 

I know of a good place for you to meet me

 

Book21

14

Gerunds and infinitives after be

 

The to –inf and gerund forms can be used as subject complements after the verb be there are differences in the usage of the two

Subjects which express duty ,advice, purpose

Etc ,are often followed by inf –es

 

Tim’s goal is to learn Russian

Her purpose in life to be a good teacher

 

 

His favorite sport is swimming

Her biggest problem is doing her homework

 

Book 21

15

Noun clauses after certain verbs

A noun clauses can be used after certain verbs a noun clauses can be used after certain verbs

That express necessity and requesting .some of the more common verbs are .

ask ,advice, Recommend , insist, request ,order ,command ,suggest ,urge

that can be used to introduce these clauses it can also be omitted in this structure when a noun clause follows one of these verbs ,the verb in the clause has no-s for third person singular and no-ed for past tense .be is used instead of is ,am ,are ,we say that the verb is a subjective form :

his mother insisted (that )he be home at eight

I suggested to john (that ) he study for the test

Mr . former recommended (that ) we not leave today

 

 

 

Book 22

1 present progressive vs simple present tense

present progressive

simple present tense

 

use the present progressive to talk about something that is happening now

use the simple oresent tense to talk about something that happens all the time

look ! it’s snowing !

excuse me,what are you doing ?

john and his cousinare jogging  around the block

can you please talk lower ?i’m listening to the radio

she ‘s boiling water so she can make tea

where ‘s jack / he’s visiting his mother

it usually snows her in the winter

what do you do after class most of the time ?

do you ever jog ?

yes ,I jog every morning

he often listens to the radio after class

water boils at 100 degree centigrade

jack visits his mother every friday

Book22

2

Review of yes /no questions

statement

yes/no question

a statement gives some kind of information

a yes /no question is a simple question which elicits a yes or a no answer /it can begin with forms of do .forms of be

has/have /had or modals

they live in new York

he rides a bicycle to work

she’s studying to work

she ‘s studying French at night

they ‘ll have tomorrow

Linda lost her keys

they were studying when the lights went out

you should eat .jack’s made soup

the girls had already eaten before they got home 

do they live in new york ?

does he ride a bicycle to work ?

is she studying French at night ? will they leave tomorrow ?

did Linda lose her keys ?

didn’t she lose her keys ?

were they studying when the lights went out ?

should we eat ?has jack made soup ?

had the girls already eaten before they got home ?

hadn’t the girls already eaten before they got home ?

Book 22

3

 

Prefix re –

The prefix re – has the the meaning of again

Remarried reconsider .rered ,rearrange .rewrite ,Reapply ,

re-enlist formal speech to introduce an adverb clause of manner which expresses how someone or something tc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book 22

4

As if /  as though

The conjunctions as if and as though are preferred

In in formal speech to introduce an adverb clause of manner which expresses how someone or something looks .sounds .smells .feels .or seems .informally however we use like

 

it smells

as if

as though

like *

something is burning

 

 

We can also use as if or as though to show how some one does something

 

Helen speaks as though she knows that subject very well

Bob always acts as if he’s mad

Rita reads that story a though she’s written it

Colloquial or informal speech

 

 

Book 22

5

Suffix – ness

We can add the suffix – ness to some adjectives make nouns which then express the quality or state of being :

 

Dark /darkness .    ready /readiness ,,  ill /illness

Dizzy /dizziness .   friendly ./ friendliness   .  lazy /laziness

Empty /emptiness .great /greatness   quick /quickness

Eager /eagerness  . happy /happiness .   .sick /sickness

Note the spelling ,change y to I

 

 

Book 22

6

Noun as object complement after verbs of choosing

 

In sentences that contain verbs of choosing ,considering and thinking ,two nouns can follow the verb .these two nouns refer the same person or the same thing .these sentences may be written different ways .

The players elected Jim as their leader

The players elected Jim to be their leader

The players elected Jim their leader

(Jim =leader )

The commander has declared next Monday as a holiday

The commander has declared next Monday to be a holiday

The commander declare next Monday a holiday

(next Monday =a holiday )

Note : in some sentences either as to be can used but not both

 

 

Book22

7

Reducing adjective clauses to adjective phrases

Sentences that contain adjective clause can be shortened by changing the adjective clauses to adjective phrases either present or past participle is used in the phrase

 

 

Cars that are parked on the grass must be moved

Cars parked on the grass must be moved

 

No one who is taking the may leave the room

No one taking the test may leave the room

The meal that is being planned is a special one

The meal being planned is a special one

Book 22

8

 Reducing adjective clauses to prepositional phrases

Sentences that contain adjective clauses with a subject pronoun and the verb have and a direct object can be shortened by changing the adjective clauses to prepositional phrases .adjective clauses that contain have /don’t have are reduced to prepositional phrases containing with or without

 

subject

adjective

 

 

 

subject pronoun be+have

prepositional phrases

predicate

the pay phone

the pay phone

that’s

that’s

on the wall

on the wall

doesn’t work

doesn’t work

the cap

the cao

that has

that has

a star on it

with a star on it

is the general’s

is the general’s

 

B00k 22

9

Sequencing modifiers before nouns

Study the columns below /they show the kinds of words that can be used to describe something and the order in which the words are usually placed

determiner that tells which or  how many

adjective that gives description

adjective that gives a physical description

noun used as an adjective

noun head word

an

mom;s

their

the

no

two

several

a dozen

exciting

delicious

dangerous

clear

major

interesting

eager

cheap

hot

narrow

heavy

blue

new

young

small

white

soccer

apple

mountain

combat

health

tv

college

state

paper

match

pie

roads

boots

sky

problems

programs

students

colleges

plates

 

1.Determiner )a .an .his. on of my .several .dozen .some .any

2. ordinal number (first ,second ……..)

3. cardinal number (1,2,3,4……)

4.Descriptive (exciting ,marvelous ……..)

5 . size .shape

6. condition .state (hot .cold )

7 . color

8. nationality

9 . noun adjunct or gerund

10 . noun head word

 

Book 22

10

Verb +that –noun clause

A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb and is used as part a sentence .there are certain verbs that are followed by that (optional )+ noun clause

 

Noun clause

I think

Did you forget

(that )I’l leave tomorrow

(that )john is n’t here today

 

The following verbs can be used with noun clauses beginning with that

Agree, figure out ,imagine  , observe ,say

Believe ,find out , indicate predict ,tell ,decide ,regret ,know ,read ,discover ,guess ,learn ,realize ,think, doubt ,hear ,notice ,regret ,feel ,hope ,understand remember

Book 22

11

Emphatic do

When we want to stress or emphasize an action can use do ,does ,did ,before the verb

Alan : do you want to play soccer with this afternoon

Rick : I don’t play soccer ,but I do play tennis

Ann :does Andy have a class tonight ?

Paul : not tonight ,but he does have one Monday

Bart  : not you meet my niece last night ?

Owen : no ,but I did meet your nephew

Note : use the emphatic do sparingly (بشكل ضئيل (

Book 22

12

suffixes –ful and –less

We can add the suffixes –ful and –less ,to some nouns to make adjectives .the suffixes –ful and –less have opposite meanings : -ful means “full of or having “ and ,-less “ means without “

Or not having

 

 

Power   the general is a very powerful man

(he has a lot of power and authority )

I couldn’t do any thing .i felt powerless (I didn’t have the power to do anything

 

Care   key always obeys the traffic laws ,she’s a careful driver

Gary doesn’t  follow traffic rules .he’s a careless driver

We cannot add these suffixes to all nouns to make words with opposite meaning

 

Friend  he is friendless

He doesn’t have a friend

We can’t ad-full to ‘friend “

 

Book 22

13

Modal review

Can /was or were going to /be unable to /had better

 

Can is used to show possibility

 

You can see the whole city from this tower

Mark can jog tonight if he finishes work early

 

Was /were going to  is used to show past intention

 

I was going to call you ,but I didn’t have time

We were going to go to the beach ,but it stated to rain

 

Be unable to is used to show inability or in capability

Ed has lost his watch and is unable to find it

The sound was too low ,so we were unable to hear the tape clearly

 

Was /were going to is used to show past intention

I was going to call you ,but I didn’t have time

We were going to the beach ,but it started to rain

 

Be unable to is used to show inability or incabality

El has lost his watch and is unable to find it

The sound was too low ,so we were unable to hear the tape clearly

 

Had better is used to give advice

We had better call off the soccer game tonight

It’s starting to rain .you ‘d better take your umbrella

Book 22

14

Get –passive

Get-passive is used to refer to an action

That happens to something or someone

 

The house will get finished eventually

John and sue  got married last Saturday

Rome didn’t get built in a day

Larry has gotten accepted by smith university

 

 

 

 

Book 22

15

Indirect speech :

Reported present perfect

A present perfect tense in direct speech should be changed to the past perfect in indirect speech

Pam : have you ever been to Paris ,Paul ?

Paul : no ,I’ve never been there

Dan: what did Pam ask you ?

Paul : she asked if I had ever been to Paris ?

Book23

1

Present and past participles as noun modifiers

A participle is a verb form which can be used either in a verb phrase or as adjective .the participle ends in –ing .the past participle ends is –ed –d –t –n –or en

The water which is boiling produces steam

(present participle used in a verb phrase )

Boiling water produces steam .

(present participle used as an adjective )

He opened the envelope which had been sealed

(past participle used in a verb phrase )

He opened the sealed envelope

(past participle used as an adjective )

In a participle – noun combination ,the noun receives the primary stress (/) and the participle receives the secondary stress ( \ )

He walked for a mile in the  pouring rain

The bank will return your cancelled check

Book23

2

 Review of question – word questions

Question – word questions are used to ask for specific information ,such at a time ,a name ,a location or a ……..,they begin with one of the question words : who ,whom ,which ,what ,whose ,when ,where ,why ,and how .

 

 

Where the party ?

Who’s invited ?

How many people will be there ?

What time does the entertainment start ?

When are you going ?

Book23

3

 present and past participle as objective complements

a present or past participle can be used after a direct object to modify the direct object .the direct and participle will follow the verb catch ,discover ,find ,keep or leave ,(note : the verb catch doesn’t ordinarily take a past participle as a complement )

a present participle is used when the direct object performs an action a past participle is used when the direct object receives the action

Subject

Verb

Direct object

Participle

We

Found

 The other guests

Waiting for us

 He

Kept

 His fear of heights

 Hidden

Book 23

4

Review of the imperative form

The second person imperative is used to give commands .instructions ,and directions . the simple form of the verb(the bare infinitive ) is used .the negative imperative is formed with do not or don’t

 

Answer the phone

(you)

Answer

Don’t move

Go

The phone ,please

The victim

Two blocks straight a head

 

 

Book 23

5

Adverb clauses of time

Adverb clauses of time show the chronological relationship of one action to another ,they usually modify the verb of the main clause but can also modify the whole sentence ,most follow the main clause and are not separated from it by a comma .

Please lock the door when you leave others precede the main clause and  are followed by a comma

When you leave ,please lock the door

 

Adverb of clauses of time are introduced by the following conjunctions : as ,after ,before ,now that ,until ,when ,while ,whenever ,since ,and as soon as .

 

Book 23

6

The gerund as a noun modifier

A gerund is a verbal noun ending in –ing ,it can be used before another noun to describe that noun’s phrase

 

A fishing boat =a boat for fishing

 

In a gerund –noun combination ,the gerund receives the primary stress (/) the other noun receives ta weaker stress called third (\)

 

Typing paper =paper for typing

 

Book23

7

Prepositions of place and direction

Prepositions which indicate place or location

At, beside , near ,over , above , between ,next to ,throughout ,among ,in ,on ,under ,behind , in back of , on top of , underneath ,below , in front of , opposite ,beneath ,inside

Prepositions which indicate direction of movement

Around ,from ,on ,through , as far as ,in ,onto ,to ,away from , into , out (of ) ,toward (s) down ,off ,past ,up

 

Book 23

8

The suffix – ward

 

The suffix – ward (s) is used to  form adjectives and adverbs which indicate a direction in time or space .

Northward ,southward ,eastward ,westward ,upward(s) ,downward(s) backward (s)

 

 

Book 23

9

The suffix –ern

The suffix  -ern indicates that something occurs in or is situated in a certain direction

It is added to nouns to form adjectives

 

 

Northern ,southern , eastern ,western

 

 

Book 23

10

Indirect speech : reported present perfect progressive

When a statement or question in the present perfect progressive tense is reported ,two changes occur :

 

1 . the tense of the verb changes from the present perfect progressive to the past perfect progressive

 

 

Jim said ;” ann has been teaching French “

Jim said that ann had been teaching French

 

Jan asked ;” have you been working here long ,ed ?

Jan asked ed if he had been working here long

 

2. first and second person pronouns change to the third person (unless someone is reporting his own words )

 

Ken said ;” I have been trying to lose weight “

Ken told me that he had been trying to lose weight

Kay said ;” I’ve been trying to reach you ,jan “

I told jan I had been trying to reach her

Book 23

11

He he told me that they had been working all day

Verb in the sentences

Originally spoken 

Verb in the sentence that tells what was said

Have /has been –ing

Had been –ing

Hasn’t /haven’t been –ing

Hadn’t been –ing

 

 

Book 23

12

Using : should ,ought to ,and should have to express expectancy

 

Should and ought to are used to express what we suppose is happening now or will probably  happen in the future

 

I mailed the package yesterday

You should get it tomorrow

We ordered dinner 20 minutes ago

The waiter ought to be bringing our food soon

 

Should have is used to express expectations about actions or conditions in the past

 

The flight left Miami on schedule

It should have already landed in new York  

Book 23

13

Suffixes  -ance /.ence 

The suffixes – ance , and ence can be added to verbs from nouns which name an act ,condition or quality

 

Accept +ance …………acceptance

(the act of accepting )

Exist +ence …………….existence

( the condition of existence )

 

Acceptance ,annoyance ,appearance ,assistance ,attendance ,convergence ,confidence ,correspondence ,difference , dependence ,existence ,insistence ,interference ,maintenance ,resistance ,negligence ,observance ,performance ,reliance ,tolerance

Book 23

15

Review of adverbs of degree

Adverbs of degree are used to emphasize or limit adjectives or other adverbs ,the following adverbs of degree are placed in front of the word they modify:

A little , entirely ,much ,scarcely , absolutely ,extremely ,nearly so ,almost ,fairly ,only ,somewhat ,awfully ,far ,quite ,such a (n) ,barely ,hardly , rather ,too ,completely ,just ,really ,very

 

One adverb of degree differs from these enough follows the adjective or adverb it modifies

 

I though the test was fairly easy

Al found the exam extremely difficult

He must not have studied hard enough

The students did rather well on their tests this morning

 

 

 

 

Book 24

1

The gerund as direct object

Some verbs in enough are  followed by a gerund or a gerund phrase .the gerund is the verb form which ends in – ing the gerund is used as a noun

Type of sentence

Subject

Verb

Gerund (phrase )

Affirmative

I

She

They

Putt off

Practice

Considered

Studying until today

Speaking English

Inviting mary

Negative

I

He

They

Don’t like

Doesn’t miss

Don’t mind

Wearing glass

Being with his family

Helping the police

 

I

She

They

Like

Regrets

Deny

Not wearing glasses

Not being with her family

Not helping the police

Interrogative

Do you

Did he

Can they

Like

Continue

Begin

Playing the guitar?

Studying French ?

Working on the report now?

 

This is a part list of verbs which can be follwed by a gerund

 

Allow ,enjoy ,postpone ,resist ,anticipate ,escape ,practice ,start ,appreciate ,finish ,put off ,stop ,begin ,imagine ,quit,suggest ,can’t help ,keep ,recall .tolerate ,consider ,like

 

(to ,ing )

recommend ,understand ,continue ,mind ,regret ,deny ,miss ,remember ,discuss ,permit ,report

 

Book 24

2

The suffix  - fy ,ify

The suffix –fy or ify is added to some nouns and adjectives to make verbs .the suffix express the meaning of to make or become ,note the spelling

 

Beauty /beatify ,glory /glorify ,pure /purify ,class /classify ,just /justify ,simple /simplify ,clear /clarify ,liquid /liquefy ,solid /solidify ,electric /electrify ,person /personify ,terror /terrify ,false /falsify

 

Book 24

3

Reducing an adverb clause of time to a modifying phrase

An adverb clause of time is introduced by conjunctions such as after ,before ,since ,until ,when ,whenever and while

It can be reduced to a modifying phrase if the subject of the main clause and the subject of the main clause of time are the same this is done by omitting the subject of the adverb clause and by changing the verb in the adverb clause to the –ing form ,if the verb be is present in the verb clause it’s also omitted (*)

 

 

I feel sleepy whenever I study after dinner

I feel sleepy whenever studying after dinner

 

Before we opened the door ,we head a loud a loud noise

Before opening the door ,we heard a loud noise

 

Could you walk after you fell off the horse ?

Could you walk after falling off the horse ?

While you were in germany ,did you hear the news ?

While in germany ,did you hear the news ?

 

Book 24

4

One use of the gerund

A gerund or gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence and appear before the verb ,it can be made negative by placing the word not before the gerund ,if there’s a subject of the gerund ,it must be in the possessive * form

 

Eating too much candy is bad for your teeth

Not getting enough sleep will make you feel tired at work

Johnny’s fast driving caused him to lose his license

 

Book 24

5

Another use of the gerund

A gerund phrase can be the subject of a sentence and may appear after the verb in an anticipatory  it construction

 

It’s been a pleasure meeting you (means the same as )

Meeting you has been a pleasure

It hasn’t been fun climbing this mountain

(means the same as )

Climbing this mountain hasn’t been fun

 

Book 24

6

One more use of the gerund

A gerund or gerund phrase may be used as the object of a preposition ,it can be made negative by placing the word not the gerund ,it must be in the possessive * form

Thank you for being my friend

We were happy about not having homework

When he spoke to the soldiers ,the colonel insisted on their standing at attention

 

About ,at ,for ,in ,on ,over ,to with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book 24

7

Tag questions

Tag questions are short questions are attached to statements affirmative statements have negative tag questions ,negative statements have affirmative tag questions

Tag question can have a rising intonation or falling intonation ,each kind of intonation expresses something different ,tag questions with arising intonation are used to seek  confirmation the speaker is not certain about the information ,tag questions with falling intonation are used to seek agreemeny  the speaker is certain about the information and wants you to agree with him

I’m correct about the answer ,aren’t I ?

We have to go to work tomorrow ,don’t we ?

The weekends never seem long enough ,do they ?

Book 24

8

Subjective that noun clause after anticipatory it

A noun clause which follows an anticipatory –it  construction has the verb in the subjunctive mood

 

 

Anticipatory –it

Subjunctive noun clause

 

 

 

 

 

It’s

Adjective

 

 

 

 

 

 

(that)

 

 

I be on time

You do the work

He not fail the exam

She remain in class

The book be studied

We report to the chief

The go to the meeting

advisable

Best

Better

Compulsory

Critical

Essential

Important

Mandatory

Necessary

Required

Urgent

Book 24

9

Tenses indicating future

A future action or condition is expressed with will or be going to, when there is certainty about a future action, the simple present tense or the present progressive may also be used. Time expressions often accompany these lat tenses to clarify time.

The train

Will depart

Is going to depart

Departs

Is departing

At 2:30 pm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Book 24

10

Indefinite pronounce : some -, any -, and no- compounds

The indefinite pronounce something, someone, somebody , any thing , any one , any body can be used in questions.

Did al put something in his car?

Did you see someone /somebody in the lab?

Would you like any thing to drink?

Did you speak to anyone/anybody about your problem?

 

Book 24

11

To-infinitive as direct object

An infinitive is the word to +simple form of a verb

An infinitive ma is used as a noun .in the pattern illustrated below, an infinitive or an infinitive phrase is used as a direct object. Note the negative form of the phrase.

 

 

Subject

Verb

Direct object

Infinitive phrase

Mr crane

Jerry

The students

Likes

Is planning

Will need

To go to the movies

To cook dinner tonight

To do there home work

Louise

Monty

The men

Had decided

Promised

Agreed

Not to watch TV

Not to spend all his money

Not to fight

 

This is a partial list of verbs which are followed by an infinitive. the verbs with an asterisk may also be followed by a gerund phrase

Afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, bother, care, choose, decide, demand, determine, expect, fail, happen, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, proceed, promise, refuse, request, seem, tend, threaten, volunteer, wait, want , wish,

Asterisks :

Attempt, begin, continue, forget, hate, intend, like, love, mean, need, neglect, plan, prefer, regret, remember, start, try.

 

 

Book24

12

Past perfect and past participle in indirect speech

When direct speech with a past perfect or past perfect progressive tense is changed to indirect speech

  1. the tense doesn’t change
  2. “that “ may be added (it’s optional)
  3. personal pronouns and possessive adjectives changes ,for axample ,you may be changed to me ,your to my
  4. in questions ,the word order changes from question to statement (verb /subject order )
  5. in yes/no questions ,add “if “ or “ whether”

 

 

Direct speech

Ed: I’d worked in a bank before I came to this job

 

Ann:i

D been swimming before sam called

Ron : where had kim studied English before she came here ?

Pam : had you met mr wong before ?

Indirect speech

Edd said (that ) he’d worked in bank before he come to this job

Ann said she’d been swimming before sam called

Ron asked where kim had studied English before she came here

Pam asked me if /whether I had met mr wong before

  The indefinite pronouns something ,someone ,some body ,anything ,anyone ,anybody ,nothing ,no one ,and nobody ,can be used in affirmative sentence

 

Ed put something in his desk

A saw someone /somebody in the library

You may choose anything you want from the menu

Anyone /anybody in that office can help you

Nothing you say will change my mind

No one /no body wants to do the assignment

The indefinite pronouns anything ,anybody ,and anyone can be used in negative sentence

 

Joe didn’t bring anything to wear for cold weather

I don’t want anyone /anybody to know I’m leaving

 

Boo24

13

Indefinite :some =,any -,and ,no- compounds

The indefinite adverbs someplace ,somewhere ,anyplace ,anywhere can be used in questions

 

Would you like to someplace /somewhere after dinner ?

Are you going anyplace /anywhere this weekend ?

The indefinite adverbs ,someplace ,somewhere ,anyplace ,anywhere ,noplace ,and nowhere, can be used in affirmative sentences

 

John went someplace /somewhere this morning

Sit down anyplace /anywhere when the show begins

Ed’s going noplace /nowhere during his vacation

The indefinite adverbs anyplace and anywhere can be used in negative sentences

 

I feel ill ,so I won’t go anyplace /anywhere tonight

Book 24

14

Verbs of perception +bare inf or present participle

Certain verbs of perception and their objects are followed by the bare inf (without “to”)or the oresent participle (the –ing form )the bare inf is used to emphasize completion of the action

The present participle is used to emphasize the duration of the action

These follow the pattern :

Feel,look at ,observe , smell ,hear ,notice ,see ,watch ,listen to

The verb smell can be used only with the present participle form

 

We saw him run /running  across the field

I didn’t hear bill knock /knocking at the door

Did you notice the doctor go /going into the room ?

Can’t you smell the cookies baking in the kitchen ?

 

Book 24

15

We can add the suffixes –ent /ant to some verbs to make adjectives ,they express “that has  , shows ,does “

-ent

-ant

Absorb /absorbent

Converge /convergent

Depend/dependent

Differ/different

Excel/excellent

Insist/insistent

 

Assistant

Obsevant please /pleasant

Rely /reliant

Resist /resistant

Tolerate /tolerant

 

Note the spelling change

Preposition s of time

At – is used with time of day with an age ,and with the worlds ,night ,first ,last ,beginning ,end

At noon ,at midnight ,at 7:00 am

At the age of twelve

At night ,at first,at last

At the beginning ,at the end

 

On –days ,dates ,parts of certain day ,words time schedule

 

 On Monday ,on your birthday

On October 18

On the evening of june 8

On time ,on schedule

 

In quatities of time beginning ,end

  In ten minutes ,in an hour

In a week ,in two years

In the beginning ,in the end

From –with to ,or till ,or until

Before and after   time of day ,dates ,nouns that names events or occurrences

Before noon ,after 5 : pm ,before December 31 , after april 15 ,before the game ,after dinner

After –quantity of time

After 6 months

After thirty years

For –period of time

Since –definit times

Become /get

Become ……….noun

                           Adjective

Get ……………adjective

Too + oredicate adjective +to –infintive

To express exessiteness

Ex the food is too greasy ( I can’t eat it )

 

Present perfect tense

S + have /has + past participle

 

1.Action begin in the past and still happening

   I have been in amman since 1988

 2 . an action began in the past and just finished

       I have already eaten my launch

 3 . an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past

I have been to france

 

(already ,recently ,just ,since ,for ,yet )

This time

 

 

 

Present perfect progressive

S + have /has + been + ing

 I have been reading since 3 o’clock

 

 

Suffix-y

Sun

Wind

Soap

Grease

y

 

 

Could …………past ability

Adjective clause

 

Who ___________ person

Which __________things

That ___________both person /things

 

 

الحمد لله رب العالمين